2. Assess the physical and mental status of the patient (linked roles: EXP, COM, PRO)

EPA2.1Perform an accurate and clinically relevant physical examination in a logical and fluid sequence, with a focus on the purpose and the patient’s expectations, complaints and symptoms, in persons of all ages
EPA2.2Assess the cognitive and mental state of the patient including memory, perception, understanding, expression and affect
EPA2.3Perform a physical examination in difficult situations such as obesity, intrusive procedure, non-cooperative patient, reduced consciousness, cognitive impairment and persons who do not speak the local language
EPA2.4Identify, describe, document and interpret abnormal findings of a physical examination. Assess vital signs (temperature, heart and respiratory rate, blood pressure)
EPA2.5Demonstrate patient-centred examination techniques; demonstrate effective use of devices such as a stethoscope, otoscope, ophthalmoscope; respect patient privacy, comfort, and safety
EPA2.6Explain physical examination manoeuvres, obtain consent as appropriate
EPA2.7Recognize the signs of imminent death 
Specific skills related to physical examination Students are expected to perform the tasks below on simulated or real patients. However, in some situations, in italics, only a demonstration of the technique should be expected
EPA 2a.Assessment of patient’s general condition and vital signs
EPA 2b.Assessment of nutritional status
EPA 2c.Assessment of attention, thought, perception, speech, affect and psychomotor skills
EPA 2d.Evaluation of patient’s decision-making capacity
EPA 2e.Assessment of the skin, hair and nails, description of lesions
EPA 2f.Palpation of lymph nodes
EPA 2g.Inspection and palpation of the orbit, eyelids and eye (all structures)
EPA 2h.Assessment of visual acuity and visual field, as well as optic disc and retinal vessels with ophthalmoscope
EPA 2i.Assessment of colour vision 
EPA 2j.Assessment of eye movements, recognition and description of nystagmus
EPA 2k.Inspection and palpation of auricle and adjacent region as well as external auditory canal and tympanic membrane - hearing tests with whispering, conversational voice and tuning fork
EPA 2l.Inspection of nose, face, mouth, salivary glands and larynx 
EPA 2m.Inspection, palpation and auscultation of cervical structures
EPA 2n.Inspection and palpation of thyroid, carotid arteries
EPA 2o.Inspection and palpation of skeleton and joints 
EPA 2p.Functional testing of joint mobility: shoulders, elbows, wrists, fingers, hips, knees and ankles
EPA 2q.Inspection, palpation, percussion and mobility of the spine 
EPA 2r.Inspection and palpation of chest, percussion and auscultation of lungs
EPA 2s.Palpation (apex beat/fremitus) and auscultation of heart; description of normal/abnormal heartbeat and murmurs
EPA 2t.Palpation of pulse, testing for arterial insufficiency or bruits
EPA 2u.Demonstrate ability to perform simple ultrasound investigations (suspected pleural effusion, abdominal mass, ascites)
EPA 2v.Assessment of venous system
EPA 2w.Palpation, percussion and auscultation of abdomen, description of findings
EPA 2x.Inspection and palpation of groin / hernial orifices
EPA 2y.Examination of male genitals 
EPA 2z.Rectal examination in male (anus, rectum, prostate gland, sacrum) and female 
EPA 2aa.Speculum examination: inspection of vagina and cervix 
EPA 2bb.Bimanual examination: vagina, cervix, uterine corpus, ovaries
EPA 2cc.Palpation of breast
EPA 2dd.Neurological examination: testing cranial nerves, reflexes, passive muscle stretch, inspection of muscle bulk, tone and strength, as well as involuntary movements, gait and balance, coordination, superficial and deep sensation, aphasia, orientation, memory
EPA 2ee.Assessment of coma (scale)
EPA 2ff.Examination of new-borns (Apgar score, dysmorphism, malformation)
EPA 2gg.Assessment of age-specific anthropometric characteristics of infants / children / adolescents
EPA 2hh.Assessment of pubertal growth (pubertal stages)
EPA 2ii.Age-specific assessment of the child: neurological and cognitive development 
EPA 2jj.Assessment of basic and instrumental activities of daily living
EPA 2kk.Forensic examination of persons under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs
EPA 2ll.Documentation of physical/sexual violence
EPA 2mm.Clinical diagnosis of death, estimation of time of death