1. Take a medical history (linked roles: EXP, COM, PRO)

EPA1.1Obtain a complete and accurate history in an organized fashion, taking into account the patient’s expectations, priorities, values, representations and spiritual needs; explore complaints and situations in persons of all ages; adapt to linguistic skills and health literacy; respect confidentiality
EPA1.2Explore patient expectations, values and priorities
EPA1.3Use patient-centred, hypothesis-driven interview skills; be attentive to patient’s verbal and nonverbal cues, patient/family culture, concepts of illness; check need for interpreting services; approach patients holistically in an empathetic and non-judgmental manner
EPA1.4Evaluate understanding and decision-making capacity of all patients, especially those of psychiatric patients, cognitively impaired persons or minors
EPA1.5Identify and use alternate sources of information to obtain history when needed, including (but not limited to) family members, primary care physicians, staff of living facility, pharmacy or social/health alliance
EPA1.6Assess gender, social, cultural and other factors that may influence the patient’s perception and description of symptoms; demonstrate cultural awareness and humility, and be conscious of the potential for bias in interactions with the patient
EPA1.7In cases of long-term follow-up care, select the most salient issues that must be addressed in terms of treatment, side-effects, compliance, daily impact of the disease and patient’s environment
EPA1.8Review the patient’s health behaviour and lifestyle as part of a routine check-up, or as far as possible, and assess the patient’s opinions, representations and expectations
EPA1.9Explore the patient’s use of medicine and treatment, including complementary and alternative medicine
EPA1.10Explore the patient’s use of psychoactive substances
EPA1.11Use clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to a patient’s care
EPA1.12Identify issues not mentioned spontaneously by the patient (hidden agenda)
EPA1.13Recognize situations involving potential self-harm or victimization, such as interpersonal violence, assault
Specific competencies/skills related to history taking
EPA1aTake an age-specific paediatric history (involving mother/father and child or adolescent)
EPA1bPerform an age-specific assessment of a child’s / adolescent’s development and lifestyle
EPA1cTake a psychiatric history
EPA1dTake an occupational and workplace history, consider ergonomic and hygienic situation
EPA1eTake a history of psychoactive substance use, misuse or disorder and other health-compromising behaviour
EPA1fTake a history of sexual and reproductive health
EPA1gTake a history from severely ill or dying patients